A standard cup of tea requires one-eighth as much water as a cup of coffee, but tea is no eco-beverage. In fact, the carbon footprints of tea and coffee production are almost identical. But producing tea contributes less to its footprint than how you drink it. Brewing a truly sustainable cuppa might be impossible, but a little education about your tea choices makes it easier to shop your values. Here’s what you need to know about tea.
The UN FAO launched a project in Kenya last year to support the production of carbon-neutral tea. Another initiative, Tea2030 crosses all sectors of tea production. But for now, most tea is grown on chemical-intensive farms that contribute to deforestation, erosion, and pesticide contamination. Monoculture farms damage soil health and make plants more susceptible to disease, leading to more intensive use of chemical pesticides and fertilizer. Half of the 62 teas tested by the FDA in a 2015 study contained pesticide residues.
Using biological controls instead of fumigants against soil nematodes; site-specific fertilization plans or organic farming; and the introduction of shade trees to plantations are all methods for reducing the impact of tea cultivation.
A labor-intensive crop harvested by hand, tea is grown all around the world with China, India, Kenya, and Sri Lanka as the largest producers. China produces half the world’s tea on 15 million small farms where there is little awareness of the dangers of agrochemicals. Two-thirds of Kenyan tea farmers are also smallholders with few employees (some of whom may be children). By contrast, three-quarters of Indian tea (particularly Assam) is still produced on near-feudal plantations with a history of human rights abuses that particularly impact women. But everywhere, low wages, pesticide exposure, and brutal working conditions are rampant.
The vast majority of tea is still purchased in bulk by multinational corporations. Only Sri Lanka has developed much local processing, but this has not led to direct trade options or improved conditions for workers.
The environmental impact of your afternoon tea doesn’t end with what you choose to buy. The biggest source of carbon emissions from the six billion cups of tea drunk each day is how you drink it. Because cattle production is so carbon intensive, you can eliminate two-thirds of your tea’s carbon emissions by eliminating milk.
The energy source for boiling water makes a difference, but more important is how much water you boil. Boiling more water than you need can double the climate impact.
Perhaps surprisingly, waste disposal is not a major factor in the impact of your tea. It’s still best to reuse tea bags where you can. But be warned that unless they are specifically labeled for composting, most “paper” tea bags contain up to 30% plastic. To avoid waste, loose-leaf tea is preferable.
Finally, the production of tea, like coffee, not only contributes to climate change, it is also threatened by climate change. So don’t stop at the cup – every action you take to reduce your carbon footprint makes the world a better place for tea.